List of most massive black holes
The order of this list is speculative:
- There are wildly varying ranges in mass estimates of some black holes, due to unknown speed and rotation of their event horizons, giving estimates in a wide range. Such an example is the black hole in NGC 4889, which can be as low as 6 billion M☉ or can be as large as 37 billion M☉.
- Most black holes are occluded by matter from their host galaxies, making the estimates of their mass not clearly defined.
- The M-sigma relation can only be estimated by observing orbiting bodies, however, due to their distances, such estimates are often quite doubtful.
- The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) has surveyed some supermassive black holes in distant galaxies and 10 of them are found to be larger than the 1 billion M☉ cutoff point at this table, with the largest of around 17 billion M☉.
|Black hole name||Solar mass
(Sun = 1)
|S5 0014+813||40,000,000,000||Methods of estimating the mass of this black hole is poorly detailed due to the broad long wavelength emission lines and the extreme luminosity of the quasar.|
|SDSS J085543.40-001517.7||25,000,000,000||Estimate ranges from 14 to 39 billion M☉|
|NGC 4889||21,000,000,000||Best fit: the estimate ranges from 6 billion to 37 billion M☉.|
|Central black hole ofPhoenix Cluster||20,000,000,000||This black hole is continuously growing at the rate of 60 M☉ per year.|
|OJ 287 primary||18,000,000,000||A smaller 100 million M☉ black hole orbits this black hole in a 12 year period.|
|Central black hole ofMS 0735.6+7421||10,000,000,000||Produced a colossal AGN outburst after accreting 600 million M☉ worth of material.|
|Central black hole ofRX J1532.9+3021||10,000,000,000|
|NGC 3842||9,700,000,000||Brightest galaxy in the Leo Cluster|
|Messier 87||6,300,000,000||Central galaxy of the Virgo Cluster; notable for its 4,300 light-year long relativistic jet.|
|NGC 1277||5,000,000,000||Once thought to harbor a black hole so large that it contradicted modern galaxy formation and evolutionary theories, re-analysis of the data revised it downward to roughly a third of the original estimate.|
|Hercules A (3C 348)||4,000,000,000||Notable for its million light-year long relativistic jet.|
|ULAS J1120+0641||2,000,000,000||Also on record as the most distant quasar known, at z=7.085|
|NGC 3115||2,000,000,000||Also the nearest known billion solar mass black hole, at 32 million light-years away.|
|Q0906+6930||2,000,000,000||Most distant known blazar, at z = 5.47|
|The following well-known black holes are listed for the purpose of comparison|
|Markarian 501||900,000,000-3,400,000,000||Brightest object in the sky in very high energy gamma rays.|
|NGC 1275||340,000,000||Central galaxy of the Perseus Cluster|
|Messier 81 (Bode’s Galaxy)||70,000,000|
|Centaurus A||55,000,000||Also notable for its million light-year long relativistic jet|
|Messier 82 (Cigar Galaxy)||30,000,000||Prototype starburst galaxy.|
|Messier 32||1,500,000-5,000,000||A dwarf satellite galaxy of the Andromeda Galaxy.|
|Sagittarius A*||4,100,000||The black hole at the Milky Way‘s center.|
Trinh Manh Do