Atomtronics is the branch of science, engineering and technology that deals with the creation of analogues to electronic circuits and devices by the use of atoms. Atomtronics is an emerging technology that offers a wide range of applications.
When super-cooled to form Bose–Einstein condensates, atoms placed in an optical lattice may form states analogous to electrons in solid-state crystalline media such assemiconductors. Impurity doping allows the creation of n and p-type semiconductor analogue states, and an atomtronic battery can be created by maintaining two contacts at different chemical potentials. Analogues to diodes and transistors have also been theoretically demonstrated.
Atomtronic devices are still in the experimental stage, and for the future, the properties of condensed atoms offer a wide range of possible applications. The use of ultra-cold atoms leads to circuit elements that allow for the coherent flow of information and may be useful in connecting classical electronic devices and quantum computers. The use of atomtronics may allow for quantum computers that work on macroscopic scales and do not require the technological precision of laser-controlled few-ion computing methods. Since the atoms are Bose-condensed, they have the property of superfluidity and, therefore, have resistance-free current in which no energy is lost or heat dissipated, similar to superconducting electronic devices. The vast knowledge of electronics may be leveraged to easily adapt to ultra-cold atomtronic circuits. Atomtronics can not replace electronics due to the atoms being too slow.